Overview of Nervous System Disorders
Disorders of the nervous system include stroke, infections, such as meningitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and functional disorders, such as headache and epilepsy. . Nervous System Diseases are neurological disorders that affect the functioning of the brain and results in memory loss, mood swings, or other mental disorders. Study Materials NCERT Solutions.
Please understand that our phone lines must be clear for urgent medical care needs. When this changes, we will update this website. Our vaccine supply remains limited. The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates body activities.
It is sysyem up of two major divisions, including the following:. Peripheral nervous system. This consists of all other neural elements, including the peripheral nerves and the autonomic nerves.
In addition to the brain and spinal cord, principal organs of the nervous system include the following:. Vascular disorderssuch as stroke, transient ischemic attack TIAsubarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural iw and hematoma, and extradural hemorrhage. Degenerationsuch as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALSHuntington chorea, and Alzheimer disease.
The following are the most common jervous signs and symptoms of a nervous system disorder. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:. The symptoms of os nervous system disorder may look like other medical conditions or problems.
Always see your healthcare provider for disorrder diagnosis. Healthcare providers who treat nervous system disorders may have to spend a lot of time working with the patient before making a probable diagnosis of the specific condition. Many times, this involves performing numerous tests to eliminate nsrvous conditions, so that the probable diagnosis can be made.
The branch of medicine that manages nervous system disorders is called neurology. The medical healthcare providers who treat nervous system disorders are called neurologists. Some neurologists treat acute strokes and cerebral aneurysms using endovascular techniques. Neurological surgery.
The branch of medicine that provides surgical disorser for nervous system disorders is called neurosurgery, or neurological surgery. Surgeons who operate as a treatment team for nervous system disorders are called neurological surgeons or neurosurgeons.
Neuroradiologists and interventional radiologists. Radiologists that specialize in the diagnosis of neurological conditions using imaging and in the treatment of certain neurologic conditions such as cerebral aneurysms, acute strokes, and vertebral fractures, as well as disorrer of certain tumors. Rehabilitation for neurological disorders. The branch of medicine that provides rehabilitative care for patients with nervous system disorders disorde called physical medicine and rehabilitation.
Healthcare nsrvous who work with patients in the rehabilitation process are called physiatrists. Health Home Conditions and Diseases. It is made up of two major divisions, including the how to be a youtuber Central nervous system. This consists of the brain and spinal cord. In addition to the brain and spinal cord, principal organs of the nervous what are normal hormone levels during pregnancy include the following: Eyes Ears Sensory organs of taste Sensory organs of smell Sensory receptors located in the skin, joints, muscles, and other parts of the body What are some disorders of the nervous system?
The nervous system is vulnerable to various disorders. Symptoms may include: Persistent or sudden onset of a headache A headache that changes or is different Loss of feeling or tingling Weakness or loss of muscle strength Loss of sight or double vision Memory loss Impaired mental ability Lack of coordination Muscle rigidity Tremors and seizures Back pain which radiates to the feet, toes, or other parts of the body Muscle wasting and slurred speech New language impairment expression or comprehension The symptoms of a nervous system disorder may look like other medical conditions or problems.
Healthcare providers who treat nervous system disorders Healthcare providers who treat nervous system disorders may have to spend dusorder lot of time working with the patient before making a probable diagnosis of the specific condition.
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Neurodegenerative disorders are illnesses characterized by a loss of nervous system functioning that are usually caused by neuronal death. These diseases generally worsen over time as more and more neurons die. The symptoms of a particular neurodegenerative disease are related to where in the nervous system the death of neurons occurs. Mar 18, · Dysautonomia is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system, which controls functions such as breathing and heartbeat. Read more about these disorders. Central nervous system diseases, also known as central nervous system disorders, are a group of neurological disorders that affect the structure or function of the brain or spinal cord, which collectively form the central nervous system.
Neurodegenerative disorders are illnesses characterized by a loss of nervous system functioning that are usually caused by neuronal death. These diseases generally worsen over time as more and more neurons die. The symptoms of a particular neurodegenerative disease are related to where in the nervous system the death of neurons occurs.
Spinocerebellar ataxia, for example, leads to neuronal death in the cerebellum. The death of these neurons causes problems in balance and walking. In , an estimated 5. Roughly one in every eight people age 65 or older has the disease. Many research groups are examining the causes of these hallmarks of the disease.
One form of the disease is usually caused by mutations in one of three known genes. The more prevalent, late-onset form of the disease probably also has a genetic component. Many other genes have been identified that may be involved in the pathology. Current treatments focus on managing the symptoms of the disease. Other clinical interventions focus on behavioral therapies such as psychotherapy, sensory therapy, and cognitive exercises.
It was first characterized by James Parkinson in Each year, 50,, people in the United States are diagnosed with the disease. Loss of these neurons causes many symptoms including tremor shaking of fingers or a limb , slowed movement, speech changes, balance and posture problems, and rigid muscles. The combination of these symptoms often causes a characteristic slow, hunched, shuffling walk. The disease is likely the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
The prevalence of these Lewy bodies often correlates with the severity of the disease. This conversion increases the overall level of dopamine neurotransmission and can help compensate for the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Other drugs work by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks down dopamine. Autism and ADHD are neurodevelopmental disorders that arise when nervous system development is disrupted.
Neurodevelopmental disorders occur when the development of the nervous system is disturbed. There are several different classes of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Some, like Down Syndrome, cause intellectual deficits, while others specifically affect communication, learning, or the motor system. Estimates for the prevalence of the disorder have changed rapidly in the past few decades. Current estimates suggest that one in 88 children will develop the disorder. ASD is four times more prevalent in males than females.
A characteristic symptom of ASD is impaired social skills. Children with autism may have difficulty making and maintaining eye contact and reading social cues. They also may have problems feeling empathy for others. Other symptoms of ASD include repetitive motor behaviors such as rocking back and forth , preoccupation with specific subjects, strict adherence to certain rituals, and unusual language use.
Up to 30 percent of patients with ASD develop epilepsy. Patients with some forms of the disorder e. Because it is a spectrum disorder, other ASD patients are very functional and have good-to-excellent language skills.
Many of these patients do not feel that they suffer from a disorder and instead just believe that they process information differently. Except for some well-characterized, clearly-genetic forms of autism e. Variants of several genes correlate with the presence of ASD, but for any given patient, many different mutations in different genes may be required for the disease to develop.
Accordingly, brains of some ASD patients lack the same level of synaptic pruning that occurs in non-affected people. There has been some unsubstantiated controversy linking vaccinations and autism. In the s, a research paper linked autism to a common vaccine given to children. This paper was retracted when it was discovered that the author falsified data; follow-up studies showed no connection between vaccines and autism. Treatment for autism usually combines behavioral therapies and interventions, along with medications to treat other disorders common to people with autism depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder.
Although early interventions can help mitigate the effects of the disease, there is currently no cure for ASD. Symptoms of the disorder include inattention lack of focus , executive functioning difficulties, impulsivity, and hyperactivity beyond what is characteristic of the normal developmental stage.
Some patients do not have the hyperactive component of symptoms and are diagnosed with a subtype of ADHD: attention deficit disorder ADD. Examples include depression or obsessive compulsive disorder OCD. The cause of ADHD is unknown, although research points to a delay and dysfunction in the development of the prefrontal cortex and disturbances in neurotransmission. According to some twin studies, the disorder has a strong genetic component. There are several candidate genes that may contribute to the disorder, but no definitive links have been discovered.
Environmental factors, including exposure to certain pesticides, may also contribute to the development of ADHD in some patients. Treatment for ADHD often involves behavioral therapies and the prescription of stimulant medications, which, paradoxically, cause a calming effect in these patients. Schizophrenia and depression are just two examples of mental illnesses caused by a disorder of the nervous system.
Mental illnesses are nervous system disorders that result in problems with thinking, mood, or relating with other people. Debilitating mental disorders plague approximately There are several types of mental disorders including schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and many others.
The American Psychiatric Association publishes the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or DSM , which describes the symptoms required for a patient to be diagnosed with a particular mental disorder. Each newly-released version of the DSM contains different symptoms and classifications as researchers learn more about these disorders, their causes, and how they relate to each other.
A more detailed discussion of two mental illnesses, schizophrenia and major depression, is given below. Schizophrenia is a serious and often-debilitating mental illness affecting one percent of the population in the United States. Symptoms of the disease include the inability to differentiate between reality and imagination, inappropriate and unregulated emotional responses, difficulty thinking, and problems with social situations.
Positive symptoms are those that most individuals do not normally experience, but are present in people with schizophrenia. They can include delusions, disordered thoughts and speech, and tactile, auditory, visual, olfactory and gustatory hallucinations, typically regarded as manifestations of psychosis.
Negative symptoms are deficits of normal emotional responses or of other thought processes, and commonly include flat or blunted affect and emotion, poverty of speech, inability to experience pleasure, lack of desire to form relationships, and lack of motivation.
Many schizophrenic patients are diagnosed in their late adolescence or early 20s. The development of schizophrenia is thought to involve malfunctioning dopaminergic neurons and may also involve problems with glutamate signaling.
Treatment for the disease usually requires anti-psychotic medications that work by blocking dopamine receptors and decreasing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain. While some classes of anti-psychotics can be quite effective at treating the disease, they are not a cure; most patients must remain medicated for the rest of their lives.
Schizophrenia : The development of schizophrenia is thought to be caused by malfunctioning dopaminergic neurons, which causes brain dysfunction and an imbalance of chemicals in the brain. To be diagnosed with major depressive disorder, a person must have experienced a severely-depressed mood lasting longer than two weeks along with other symptoms that may include a loss of enjoyment in activities that were previously enjoyed, changes in appetite and sleep schedules, difficulty concentrating, feelings of worthlessness, and suicidal thoughts.
The exact causes of major depression are unknown and probably include both genetic and environmental risk factors. One argument against this hypothesis is the fact that some antidepressant medications cause an increase in norepinephrine and serotonin release within a few hours of beginning treatment, but clinical results of these medications are not seen until weeks later.
This has led to alternative hypotheses. For example, dopamine may also be decreased in depressed patients, or it may actually be an increase in norepinephrine and serotonin that causes the disease, and antidepressants force a feedback loop that decreases this release. Treatments for depression include psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, deep-brain stimulation, and prescription medications.
Most commonly, individuals undergo some combination of psychotherapy and medication. There are several classes of antidepressant medications that work through different mechanisms.
For example, monoamine oxidase inhibitors MAO inhibitors block the enzyme that degrades many neurotransmitters including dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine , resulting in increased neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron. This blockage results in an increase in serotonin in the synaptic cleft. Other types of drugs, such as norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors, are also used to treat depression.
Epilepsy and stroke are examples of neurological disorders that arise from malfunctions in the nervous system. There are several other neurological disorders that cannot be easily placed into clean-cut categories. These include chronic pain conditions, cancers of the nervous system, epilepsy disorders, and stroke. Epilepsy and stroke are discussed below. Estimates suggest that up to three percent of people in the United States will be diagnosed with epilepsy in their lifetime. While there are several different types of epilepsy, all are characterized by recurrent seizures.
Epilepsy itself can be a symptom of a brain injury, disease, or other illness. For example, people who have intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder can experience seizures, presumably because the developmental wiring malfunctions that caused their disorders also put them at risk for epilepsy. For many patients, however, the cause of their epilepsy is never identified and is probably a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
Often, seizures can be controlled with anti-convulsant medications. However, for very severe cases, patients may undergo brain surgery to remove the brain area where seizures originate. A stroke results when blood fails to reach a portion of the brain for a long enough time to cause damage. Without the oxygen supplied by blood flow, neurons in this brain region die.
This neuronal death can cause many different symptoms, depending on the brain area affected, including headache, muscle weakness or paralysis, speech disturbances, sensory problems, memory loss, and confusion. Stroke is often caused by blood clots, but can also be caused by the bursting of a weak blood vessel. Strokes are extremely common; they are the third most-common cause of death in the United States. On average one person experiences a stroke every 40 seconds in the United States.
Approximately 75 percent of strokes occur in people older than