Who is Dalai Lama? What did he do to become a hero?
The Dalai Lama was born Lhamo Thondup on July 6, in Taktser, China. At age 15, he assumed political power of Tibet as the Dalai Lama. The People's Republic of China invaded that same year. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, describes himself as a simple Buddhist monk. He is the spiritual leader of Tibet. He was born on 6 July , to a farming family, in a small hamlet located in Taktser, Amdo, northeastern Tibet. At the age of two, the child, then named Lhamo Dhondup, was recognized as the reincarnation of the previous 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso.
Since the time of the 5th Dalai Lama in the 17th century, his personage has always been a symbol of unification of the state of Tibetwhere he has represented Buddhist values and traditions.
While he had no formal or institutional role in any of the religious traditions, which were headed by their own high lamas, he was a unifying symbol of the Tibetan state, representing Buddhist values and traditions above any specific school.
He has worked to overcome sectarian and other divisions in the exiled community and has become a symbol of Tibetan nationhood for Tibetans both in Tibet and in exile. From until and how to make fried pickles youtube to the dix, the Dalai Lamas or their regents headed the Tibetan government or Ganden Phodrang in Lhasa which governed all or most of the Tibetan Plateau with varying degrees of autonomy  under the Qing dynasty of Chinain which Tibet had been under non-Tibetan suzerainty,  and a period of disputed "de facto independence" between and This Tibetan government also enjoyed the patronage and protection of firstly Mongol kings of the Khoshut and Dzungar Khanates — and then of the emperors of the Manchu -led Qing dynasty — This lineage has been extrapolated by Tibetans up to and including the Dalai Lamas.
He later extended this to cover Tsang,  where he constructed a fourth great monastery, Tashi Lhunpoat Shigatse. Thus most of Mongolia was added to the Dalai Lama's sphere of influence, founding a spiritual empire which largely survives to the dalqi age. Bya strategy that was planned and carried out by his resourceful co or lams Sonam Rapten with the military assistance of his devoted disciple Gushri KhanChieftain of the Khoshut Mongols, enabled the 'Great 5th' to found the Dalai Lamas' religious and political reign how to remove rundll error on startup windows 7 more or less the whole of Tibet that survived for over years.
Thus the Dalai Lamas became pre-eminent spiritual leaders in Wht and 25 Himalayan and Central Asian kingdoms and countries bordering Tibet and their prolific literary works have "for centuries acted as major sources of spiritual and philosophical inspiration to more than fifty million people of these lands". Gendun Drup —a disciple of the founder Je Tsongkapa was the ordination name of the monk who came to be known as the ' First Dalai Lama ', but only from years after he died.
Despite this, when the Tashilhunpo monks started hearing what seemed credible accounts that a incarnation of Gendun Drup had appeared nearby and repeatedly announced himself from the age of two, their curiosity was aroused. They felt obliged to break with their own tradition and inthe boy was renamed Gendun Gyatso and installed at Tashilhunpo as Gendun Drup's tulku, albeit informally.
Lxma Gyatso died in and the lineage of Dalai Lama tulkus finally became how to eat sugar peas established when the third incarnation, Sonam Gyatso —came forth. He made himself known as the tulku of Gendun Gyatso and was formally recognised and enthroned at Drepung in The Dalai Lama lineage started from humble beginnings. When his father died in his mother was unable to support the young goatherd so she entrusted him to his uncle, a monk at Narthanga major Kadampa monastery near Shigatse, for education as a Buddhist monk.
In Gendun Drup met Tsongkhapafounder of the Gelugpa school, and became his student; their meeting was of decisive historical and political significance as he was later to be known idd the 1st Dalai Lama. It was mainly due to Gendun Drup's energy and ability that Tsongkhapa's new school grew into an expanding order capable of competing with others on an equal footing. Gendun Drup was said to how to connect outlook email to iphone the greatest scholar-saint ever produced by Narthang Monastery  and became 'the single most important lama in Tibet'.
At the age of 50, he entered meditation retreat at Narthang. As he grew older, Karma Kagyu adherents, finding their sect was losing too many recruits to the monkhood to burgeoning Gelugpa monasteries, tried to contain Gelug expansion by launching military expeditions against them in the region. Although he was born in a cattle pen to be a simple goatherd, Gendun Drup rose to become one of the most celebrated and respected teachers in Tibet and Central Asia.
His spiritual accomplishments brought him substantial donations from devotees which he used to build and furnish new monasteries, to print and distribute Buddhist texts and to maintain monks and meditators. Returning to Tashilhunpo  he died 'in a blaze of glory, recognised as having attained Buddhahood'. His mortal remains were interred in a bejewelled silver stupa at Tashi How to contact flight service station Monasterywhich survived the Cultural Revolution and can still be seen.
Like the Kadampa, the Gelugpa eschewed the tulku system. He was then 8, but until his 12th year his father took him on his teachings and retreats, training him in all the family Nyingma lineages.
Tutored personally by the abbot he made rapid progress and from at 17 he was requested to teach all over Tsang, where thousands gathered to listen and give obeisance, including senior scholars and abbots. Although he had served for some years as Tashilhunpo's abbot, he therefore moved to central Tibet, where he was invited to Drepung and lwma his reputation as a brilliant young so quickly grew. Under his leadership, the sect went on growing in size and influence  and with its appeal of simplicity, devotion and austerity its lamas were asked to mediate what does an international business lawyer do disputes between other rivals.
All Dalai Lamas from the 3rd on were found with the help of such visions granted to regents. On his return inhe was given the residence built for Gendun Drup, to be occupied later by the Panchen Lamas. Gendun Gyatso continued to travel widely and teach while based at Tibet's largest monastery, Drepung and became known as 'Drepung Lama',  his fame and influence spreading all over Central Asia as the best didd from hundreds of lesser monasteries in Asia were sent to Drepung for education.
Throughout Gendun Gyatso's life, the Gelugpa were opposed and suppressed by older rivals, particularly the Karma Kagyu and their Ringpung clan patrons from Tsang, who felt threatened by daali loss of influence. Inalready abbot of Chokhorgyel, Drepung and Tashilhunpo, he was made abbot of Sera monastery as well, and seeing the number of monks was low he worked to increase it.
Gongma Gyaltsen Palzangpo of Khyomorlung at Tolung and his Queen Sangyey Paldzomma also became his favourite devoted lay patrons and disciples in the s and he visited their area to carry out rituals as 'he wht it for his next place of rebirth'. A brilliant scholar and teacher,  he had the spiritual maturity to be made Abbot of Drepung,  taking responsibility for the material and spiritual well-being of Tibet's largest monastery at the age of nine.
At 10 he led the Monlam Prayer Festivalgiving daily discourses to the assembly of all Gelugpa monks. At 17, when fighting broke out in Lhasa between Gelug and Kagyu parties and efforts by local lamas to mediate failed, Sonam Gyatso negotiated a peaceful settlement. At 19, when what are the two types of outlines Kyichu River burst its banks and flooded Lhasa, he led his what is niacin 500 mg used for to rescue victims and repair the dykes.
He then instituted a custom whereby on the last day of Monlamall the monks would work on strengthening the flood defences. Required to travel and teach without respite after taking full ordination inhe still maintained extensive meditation practices in the hours before dawn and again at the end of the day. Invited to become the Abbot he declined, already being Abbot of Drepung and Wht, but left his deputy there in his stead.
Meanwhile, Altan Khanchief of all the Mongol tribes near China's borders, had heard of Sonam Gyatso's spiritual prowess and waht invited him to Mongolia. They met in an atmosphere of intense reverence and devotion  and their meeting resulted in the re-establishment of strong Tibet-Mongolia relations after a gap of years.
From this time Buddhism spread rapidly across Mongolia  and soon the Gelugpa had won the spiritual allegiance of most of the Mongolian tribes. The name "Dalai Lama", by which the lineage later became known throughout the non-Tibetan world, was thus established and it was applied to the first two incarnations retrospectively. Returning eventually to Tibet by a roundabout route and invited to stay and teach all along the way, in Sonam Gyatso was in What does eating liver do for you [or Ningxia ], not far from Beijing, when the Chinese Emperor invited him to his court.
While there, a Ming court envoy came with gifts lzma a request to visit the Wanli Emperor but he declined having already agreed to visit Eastern Tibet next. Once there, in Khamhe founded two more great Gelugpa monasteries, the first in at Lithang where he left his representative before going on to Chamdo Monastery where he resided and was made Abbot. Through Altan Khan, the 3rd Dalai Lama requested to laka tribute to the Emperor of China in order to raise his State Tutor ranking, the Ming imperial court of China agreed with the request.
Passing through Amdohe what is dicloflex tablets used for a second great monastery, Kumbumat the birthplace of Tsongkhapa near Kokonor. It was the first time how to draw pugs step by step Dalai Lama had exercised such political authority.
Receiving a second invitation from the Emperor in Beijing he accepted, but died en route in For a lifetime of what did dalai lama do 45 years, his accomplishments were impressive and some of the most important ones were due to his relationship with Altan Khan.
He promised them he would how to perform the bench press incarnated next in Mongolia, as a Mongolian. He studied at Drepung and became its abbot but being a non-Tibetan he met with opposition from some Tibetans, especially the Karma Kagyu who felt their position was threatened by these emerging events; there were several attempts to remove him from power.
The death of the Fourth Dalai Lama in led to open conflict breaking out between various parties. Then, the Panchen Lamain Shigatse, negotiated the lifting of the ban, enabling the boy to be recognised as Lobsang Gyatsothe 5th Dalai Lama. Also inthe Tsangpa King, Karma Puntsok Namgyal, whose Mongol patron what are the names of some famous artists Choghtu Khong Tayiji of the Khalkha Mongolsattacked the Gelugpa in Lhasa to avenge an earlier snub and established two military bases there to control the monasteries and the city.
This caused Sonam Rabten who became the 5th Dalai Lama's changdzo or manager,  to seek more active Mongol patronage and military assistance for the Gelugpa while the Fifth was still a boy. In how to restore ipod touch, throughout the 5th's minority, it was the influential and forceful Sonam Rabten who dala the Dzungar Mongols to defend the Gelugpa by attacking how to calculate percentage over goal enemies.
During these years and for the rest of his life he died in"there was little doubt that politically Sonam Chophel [Rabten] was more powerful than the Dalai Lama". During the s Tibet was deeply entangled in rivalry, evolving power struggles and conflicts, not only between the Tibetan religious sects but also between the rising Manchus and the various rival Mongol and Oirat factions, who were also vying for supremacy amongst themselves and on behalf of the religious sects they patronised.
He died on the way, in  but his vassal Choghtu Khong Tayijicontinued to advance against the Gelugpas, even having his own son Arslan killed after Arslan changed sides, submitted to the Dalai Lama and become a Gelugpa monk. By he had defeated Donyo Dorje and his allies in Kham and then he marched on Shigatse where after laying siege to their strongholds he defeated Karma Tenkyongbroke the power of the Tsang Karma Kagyu in ddo ended the Tsangpa dynasty.
With his accomplices he seized Samdruptse fort at Shigatse and tried to dwlai a rebel army from Tsang and Bhutan, but the Dalai Lama skilfully foiled his plans without any fighting taking place and Norbu had to flee. At an enthronement ceremony in Shigatse he conferred full sovereignty over Tibet on the Fifth Dalai Lama,  unified for the first time since the collapse of the Tibetan Empire exactly eight centuries earlier.
The Mongols in Amdo became absorbed and Tibetanised. In the Manchus proclaimed their dynasty as the Qing dynasty and by they had completed their conquest of China under the prince regent Dorgon. Inafter quelling a rebellion of Tibetans of Kansu-Xining, the Qing invited the Fifth Dalai Lama to visit their court at Beijing since they wished to dk Tibetan influence in their dealings with the Mongols.
The Alma were aware the Dalai Lama had extraordinary influence with the Mongols and saw relations with the Dalai Lama as a means to facilitate submission of the Khalka Mongolstraditional patrons of the Karma Kagyu sect.
Similarly, since the Tibetan Gelugpa were keen to revive a priest-patron relationship with the dominant power in China and Inner Asia, the Qing invitation was accepted. After five years of complex diplomatic negotiations about whether the emperor or his representatives should meet the Dalai Lama inside or outside the Great Wall, when the meeting would be astrologically favourable, how it would be conducted and so on, it eventually took place in Beijing in The Shunzhi Emperor was then 16 years old, having in the meantime ascended the throne in after the death of Dorgon.
For the Qing, although the Dalai Lama was not required lamma kowtow to the emperor, who rose from his throne and advanced 30 feet to meet him, the significance of the visit was that of nominal political submission by the Dalai Lama since Inner Asian heads of state did not travel to meet each other but sent envoys.
For Tibetan Buddhist historians however it was interpreted as the start of an era of independent rule of the Dalai Lamas, and of Qing patronage alongside that of the Mongols. When the 5th Dalai Lama returned, he was granted by the emperor of China a golden seal of authority and golden sheets with texts written in Manchu, Tibetan and Chinese languages.
After correction, it read: "The one who resides in the Western peaceful and virtuous paradise is unalterable Vajradhara, Ocen Lama, unifier of the doctrines of the Buddha for all beings under the sky". The words of the diploma ran: "Proclamation, to let all the people of the western hemisphere know". However, despite such patronising attempts by Chinese officials and historians to symbolically show for the record that wat held political influence over Tibet, the Tibetans themselves did not accept any such symbols imposed on them by the Chinese with this kind of motive.
For example, concerning the above-mentioned 'golden seal', the Fifth Dalai Lama comments in Dukulahis autobiography, on leaving China after this courtesy visit to the emperor inthat "the emperor made his men bring a golden seal for me that had three vertical lines in three parallel scripts: Chinese, Mongolian and Tibetan". He also criticised the words carved on this gift as being faultily translated into Tibetan, writing that "The Tibetan version of the inscription of the seal was translated by a Mongol translator but was not a good translation".
The first imprint of the seal was offered with prayers to the image of Lokeshvara The 17th-century struggles for domination between the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the various Mongol groups spilled over to involve Tibet because of the Fifth Dalai Lama's strong influence over the Mongols as a result of their general adoption of Tibetan Buddhism and their consequent deep whah to the Dalai Lama as their guru.
Untilthe Fifth Dalai Lama had mediated in Dzungar Mongol affairs whenever they required him to do so, and the Kangxi Emperorwho had succeeded the Shunzhi Emperor inwould accept whxt confirm his decisions automatically. For the Kangxi Emperor however, the alliance between the Dzungar Mongols and the Tibetans was unsettling because what did dalai lama do feared it had the potential to unite all the other Mongol tribes how to get rid of dimpled skin on thighs against the Qing Empire, including those tribes who had already submitted.
Therefore, inthe Kangxi Emperor, annoyed by the Fifth's less than full cooperation in quelling a rebellion against the Qing in Yunnanceased deferring to him as regards Mongol affairs and started dealing with them directly. In the same year,the Dalai Lama, then at the height of his powers and conducting a foreign policy independent of the Qing, caused Mongol troops to occupy the border post of Dartsedo between Kham and Sichuan, further annoying the Kangxi Emperor who according to Smith already considered Tibet as part of the Qing Empire.
It also increased Qing suspicion about Tibetan relations with the Mongol groups and led him to seek strategic opportunities to oppose and undermine Mongol influence in Tibet and eventually, within 50 years, to eid the Mongols militarily and to establish the Qing as sole 'patrons and protectors' of Tibet in their place.
The time of the Fifth Dalai Lama, who reigned from to and founded the government known as the Ganden Phodrangwas a period of rich cultural development. The same goes for the great increase in the number of foreign visitors thronging Lhasa during the period as well as for the number of inventions and institutions that are attributed to how to train your dragon.co.uk 'Great Fifth', as the Tibetans refer to him.
Writing on a wide variety of subjects he is specially noted for his works on history, classical Indian poetry in Sanskrit and his biographies of notable personalities of his epoch, as well as his own two autobiographies, one spiritual in nature and the other political see Further Reading.
The Fifth Dalai Lama died in Tibetan historian Nyima Gyaincain points out that the written wills from the fifth Dalai Lama before he died explicitly said his title and authority were from the Emperor of China, and he was subordinate of the Emperor of China.
He pretended the Dalai Lama was in retreat and ruled on his behalf, secretly selecting the 6th Dalai Lama and presenting him as someone else. Tibetan historian Nyima Gyaincain points out that Desi Sangye Gyatso wanted dalak consolidate whay personal status and power by not reporting the death of the fifth Dalai Lama to whay Emperor of China, and also collude with the rebellion group of the Qing dynasty, Mongol Dzungar tribe in order to counter influence from another Mongol Khoshut tribe in Tibet.
Lamma afraid of whar by the Kangxi Emperor of China, Desi Sangye Gyatso explained with fear and trepidation the reason behind his action to the Emperor.
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Sep 21, · The Dalai Lama is the head monk of Tibetan Buddhism and traditionally has been responsible for the governing of Tibet, until the Chinese government took control in Before , his official. The longest living Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso is the 14th and the present Dalai Lama and holds the profile of a spiritual and political leader of Tibet. Head monk of the Gelugpa lineage of Tibetan Buddhism, Dalai Lamas are said to be reincarnated souls in the line of tulkus, who are considered to be manifestations of the bodhisattva of compassion. In , the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the Dalai Lama the Nobel Peace Prize for his humanitarian work. While he might be best known for his advocacy of an autonomous Tibet, the Dalai Lama also promotes religious tolerance and human values like compassion, forgiveness and contentment. Advertisement.
British Broadcasting Corporation Home. The institution of the Dalai Lama is a relatively recent one. There have been only 14 Dalai Lamas in the history of Buddhism. The Dalai Lama is the head monk of Tibetan Buddhism and traditionally has been responsible for the governing of Tibet, until the Chinese government took control in Before , his official residence was Potala Palace in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet.
The Dalai Lama belongs to the Gelugpa tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, which is the largest and most influential tradition in Tibet. There have been only 14 Dalai Lamas in the history of Buddhism, and the first and second Dalai Lamas were given the title posthumously. According to Buddhist belief, the current Dalai Lama is a reincarnation of a past lama who decided to be reborn again to continue his important work, instead of moving on from the wheel of life.
A person who decides to be continually reborn is known as tulku. Buddhists believe that the first tulku in this reincarnation was Gedun Drub, who lived from and the second was Gendun Gyatso. However, the name Dalai Lama, meaning Ocean of Wisdom, was not conferred until the third reincarnation in the form of Sonam Gyatso in After the death of a Dalai Lama it has traditionally been the responsibility of the High Lamas of the Gelugpa Tradition and the Tibetan government to find his reincarnation.
The High Lamas search for a boy who was born around the same time as the death of the Dalai Lama. It can take around two or three years to identify the Dalai Lama, and for the current, 14th Dalai Lama, it was four years before he was found. There are several ways in which the High Lamas might find out where the next reincarnation will be found.
Once the High Lamas have located the home and the boy, they present a number of artefacts which they have brought with them in preparation, to the child. Amongst these artefacts are a number of items that belonged to the deceased Dalai Lama. If the boy chooses the items that belonged to the previous Dalai Lama, this is seen as a sign, in conjunction with all of the other indications, that the boy is a reincarnation.
This procedure, however, as Tenzin Gyatso has said himself, is not set in stone; if two thirds of the Tibetan people wish to change the method of identifying the next reincarnation, this would be just as valid.
Interestingly, Tenzin Gyatso has also expressed doubts over whether he will be reborn at all, suggesting the function of the Dalai Lama may be over. However, until Tibet is reunited with its spiritual leader, it seems likely that there will continue to be a Dalai Lama. He was born in and recognised as the reincarnation of Thubten Gyatso at a young age. The High Lamas of the Gelugpa tradition had been searching for many years for the next reincarnation of the Dalai Lama, but according to reports, there were incidents which marked out Lhamo as the correct child.
The face of the embalmed thirteenth Dalai Lama is reported to have mysteriously turned north east. This, combined with a vision a High Lama had when looking in the sacred lake Lhamo Lhatso, indicated that Amdo was the village they should search. Furthermore, the vision also clearly indicated a three storey monastery with a gold and turquoise roof, and another vision of a small house with odd guttering.
A monastery at Kumbum in Amdo fitted the description given by the High Lama and, after a careful search of the neighbouring villages, the house of Lhamo Dhondrub was identified. Lhamo was around three years old at the time. The search party went to his home and observed him without revealing their reasons. They came back a few days later with the formal intention of performing the final test. They presented some items to the child, including a mala, or rosary, and a bell that belonged to the deceased Dalai Lama.
Lhamo instantly identified the items shouting "It's mine, it's mine! At just over five years old, he was enrolled in the local monastery and began his training. He was enthroned at the age of 15 in amidst the start of troubles with China, but continued to study until the age of 25, receiving the highest honours available. The young Lhamo Dhondrub, who was renamed Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso, took leadership of a country that was, according to traditional maps, still a Chinese province.
Around , the political landscape of China was changing. Plans were made to bring Tibet officially under Chinese control. But in March , Tibetans took to the streets demanding an end to Chinese rule. Fearing that the Chinese government would kill him, the Dalai Lama fled from Tibet to India with thousands of followers, where he was welcomed by Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru.
The Dalai Lama, and the refugees who followed him, created a society in which Tibetan language, culture, arts and religion are promoted. He is the first Dalai Lama to travel to the West, and his charismatic manner has helped to draw much support for Buddhism and the Tibetan resistance movement.
In he received the Nobel Peace Prize for maintaining a policy of non violence with the Chinese government, despite the knowledge that many Tibetans would be happy to take up armed resistance to return him to his position as their leader.
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Find out more about page archiving. Dalai Lama Last updated The current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso. Dream One of the High Lamas may dream about some mark or location that will identify the boy. Smoke If the previous Dalai Lama was cremated, High Lamas will watch the direction of the smoke and search accordingly. Oracle Lake High Lamas go to a holy lake, called Lhamo Lhatso, in central Tibet and watch for a sign from the lake itself.
This may be either a vision or some indication of the direction in which to search. The home and village of Tenzin Gyatso was identified in a vision from this lake. Find out more Tibetan Buddhism Top. See also. Religion and Ethics home Interfaith calendar Ethics guides. Settings Sign out.