What are the Functions of the Police? 1. Executing all orders and warrants lawfully issued to the police officer by any competent authority. 2. Collecting and communicating intelligence affecting the public peace to the competent authority. 3. Preventing the commission of offenses and public. Police, body of officers representing the civil authority of government. Police typically are responsible for maintaining public order and safety, enforcing the law, and preventing, detecting, and investigating criminal activities. These functions are known as policing. Police are often also entrusted with various licensing and regulatory activities.
Policebody of officers representing the civil authority of government. Police typically are responsible for maintaining public order and safety, enforcing the lawand preventing, detecting, and investigating criminal activities.
These functions are known how to write a formal bibliography policing. Police are often also entrusted with various licensing and regulatory activities. However, police scholars have criticized this popular understanding of the word police —that it refers to members of a public organization having the legal competence to maintain order and enforce the law—for two reasons.
First, it defines police by their ends rather than by the specific means that they use to achieve their goals. Second, the variety of situations in which police are asked to intervene is much greater than law enforcement and order maintenance. There is now a consensus among researchers, based on a definition first proposed by American sociologist Egon Bittner, that the common feature among all the different agencies engaged in policing is the legal competence to enforce coercive, nonnegotiable measures to resolve problematic situations.
Such situations are characterized by two features: their potential for harm and the need to solve them urgently before they develop that potential. Hence, the actual use of coercion or the threat of using it allows police to put a quick, nonnegotiated, and conclusive end to problematic situations e. Following that definition, policing thus may be performed by several different professional organizations: public police forces, private security agencies, the military, and government agencies with various surveillance and investigative powers.
The best known of these bodies are the public constabulary forces that patrol public spaces, often in marked cars, and whose members wear a uniform. They are the most visible representatives of the civil authority of government, and they provide the model typically associated with police organizations. However, in many Anglo-Saxon countries—such as AustraliaCanadathe United Kingdom, and the United States—there are at least twice as many private security agents as public police officers.
Furthermore, security and intelligence agencies that generally operate undercover have played an increasingly important role in combating terrorismespecially since the September 11 attacks in the United States in Policing has therefore become a complex undertaking that straddles the traditional institutional and jurisdictional distinctions between public and private, criminal and political. This article focuses on the development of public police organizations and of their policing strategies in Anglo-Saxon countries and the countries of continental Europeparticularly Francewhich developed the original model of centralized policing.
Countries in Africa, Asiaand South America are covered to a lesser extent, mainly because relatively little reliable information on their policing systems is available. There is a remarkable historical, geographic, and organizational diversity in the activities of people who are, or have been, defined as police. Police work has developed considerably from what it was centuries ago.
How to tune t maxx 3.3 populations grew and informal institutions of socialization and social control—such as the family, schools, and the church—decreased in effectiveness, police became increasingly necessary.
However, no uniform worldwide system of policing ever emerged. Numerous factors help to explain the diversity of police activities and systems.
For instance, if criminals use firearms, the police are likely to be armed, or if criminals use computers to commit crimes, the police may establish a special unit dedicated to investigating cybercrimes. History also helps to explain this diversity; e. Population plays an important role as well; policing rural areas and villages vastly differs from policing large cities. Most people willingly obey most laws, whether a police officer is present or not. They comply with the laws because they consider them fair and because they believe that in the long run it is in their interest to observe them.
In all societies this system of informal rewards and punishments is the most potent aid to law enforcement, but it is strongest in small communities. The forces that order life in a small community thus make the task of the police much easier.
Police action is needed only when such informal controls have proved insufficient. This is why rural and sparsely populated areas are often policed by a single centralized—and often militarized—police force, even in countries that have a decentralized police system. A single police organization operating under a unified command is more cost-effective and more operationally efficient than a bevy of independent small-town police forces.
Since the territory to cover may be very large and characterized by difficult terrain, police in such regions must have the long-range mobility and adaptability that are characteristic of military forces. In addition, the countryside has historically been policed by military organizations, as police forces were initially created in urban settings. The great exceptions to this model are the United Kingdom and the United States, which have how to make a sweet dough resisted police centralization.
In larger and more complex societies, informal institutions of social control are generally weaker, and, as a result, formal institutions are generally stronger. The relative weakness of informal controls is attributable to a number of factors. In large societies people often deal with strangers whom they will never meet again, and in such circumstances there may be fewer informal rewards for honesty or fewer informal penalties for dishonesty. Such communities tend also to be more technologically advanced, which leads to the adoption of new laws, such as those regulating the licensing and operation of automobiles and those concerned with commerce conducted on the Internet see e-commerce.
Because some of these new laws may not have the same moral significance as older laws criminalizing violence, theft, or fraudpeople may feel less of an obligation to obey them. Moreover, when new laws are created, crime increases almost necessarily. There is thus a danger that how to hard boil eggs in boiling water who are convicted of having violated a new law may feel aggrieved and in the future be less willing to cooperate with the police or to obey the law when they are not being observed.
Finally, as societies grow, it becomes more difficult for people to place the public interest ahead of their private interests in circumstances where the two may conflict. The desire for efficiency lends itself to the establishment of centralized police forces, which can take advantage of coordination and savings in training, organization, and service delivery.
However, such forces face the problem aptly summarized by the Latin question Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? In some democratic countries, particularly the United States and, to a lesser extent, Great Britain, citizens have traditionally believed that the existence of a national police force would concentrate too much power in the hands of its directors. They have believed that local communities could not hold a national police force accountable for abuses of power, and they have feared that the national government could use such a police force to keep itself in power illegitimately.
For those and other reasons, some democratic countries favour organizing police forces on a local basis. Decentralization brings the police closer to the community, and it often succeeds in tailoring policing to the specific needs of a community. However, a decentralized police apparatus tends to hinder the flow of intelligence between the various components of the system.
Another drawback of a system of accountability to local government is that the narrow relationship between the police and their political overseers may facilitate the corruption of both parties. The need for police accountability is made evident by the great power that police forces wield over the lives, liberties, safety, and rights of citizens.
Governments empower police to compel individuals to comply with the law; they allow officers to stop, search, detain, cite, and arrest citizens and to use physical and sometimes deadly force. If police use those powers improperly, they can abuse the civil rights of the very citizens they are supposed to protect.
Thus, it is critical that police be accountable for their policies and behaviour. In democratic countries, accountability is ensured mainly by three means. Second, the courts are entrusted to safeguard the respect of due process by the police. Third, official bodies are appointed to hear and act upon complaints from citizens against the police. Police Article What is error 3004 itunes Additional Info.
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Police and society
Police departments do not write laws; they are tasked with the responsibility of enforcing laws that are enacted by elected officials in the legislature and that are interpreted by the courts. Enforcing laws is just one of many different roles of the police. Other important roles include working with communities to. The role and function of the police are typically assumed, and a measureable fac et such as crime control defined as the scholarly interest. T hose viewed as essential policing functions and ho w.
Law enforcement in the United States has changed drastically since its founding. The first centralized, municipal police department was created by the city of Boston in By the late s, almost every major city in the country had created some manner of formal police force. Today, there are more than 18, local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies who employ more than , officers. There is an average of 2. The rise of formal law enforcement agencies has also created a demand for formal police training and increased professionalism among members of the law enforcement community.
Each year over law enforcement academies provide basic, entry-level training for future law enforcement officers. Many institutions of higher education also provide programs for law enforcement careers. Between and , the amount of time individuals spent participating in basic law enforcement training programs increased by two weeks and more than a third of these programs now require some form of mandatory field training.
Law enforcement officials play an important role in our communities. They undertake efforts to ensure justice for the approximately 8. They also conduct over 10 million arrests a year in an effort to ensure public safety and hold individuals accountable for violating the law.
The American public respect their local law enforcement agencies but have increasingly come to view police as warriors and enforcers, not guardians. In fact, almost a third of the public now view their local police as serving an enforcer role instead of a protector role. Public confidence and trust in law enforcement has also decreased since the early s. Public perceptions of police will only continue to erode as departments increasingly assume roles more akin to an occupying military force or tax collector s rather than supporters of peace and safety in the community.
There is a better way and some police departments are implementing best practices to ensure public safety in their local communities. Police officers are both part of the community they serve and the government protecting that community. The purpose of law enforcement in a free society is to promote public safety and uphold the rule of law so that individual liberty may flourish.
Trust and accountability between law enforcement and the communities they are sworn to protect is essential to advancing these goals.
The government holds the power to exercise force in achieving its ends, but must do so in a way that protects the rights of community members and upholds the rule of law. Proper policing practices require that law enforcement build positive relationships with their community, respect civil liberties, and avoid tactics that encourage the use of excessive force against citizens.
The most effective way to achieve public safety in local communities results from police and community members working collaboratively to create public safety. This tactic arose during the s and, by , 85 percent of police departments had implemented some form of community policing. Over the past forty years, research has made attempts to identify the impact of this new policing tactic.
As it turns out, community policing reduces crime and fears of crime as well as perceptions of policing discrimination. At the same time, it increases public satisfaction of police and increases positive attitudes toward officers.
A recent analysis of the scholarship around community policing confirms its positive impact on community satisfaction and perceptions of legitimacy for police. However, it presents mixed results when discussing its impact on crime and feelings of safety in the same communities.
These mixed results could be the product of something community policing research discovered in recent years: most departments disappoint in their implementation of community policing.
Studies show that the adoption of a community policing model frequently fails to result in a department-wide shift in core policing functions and tactics.
The philosophy of community policing is meant to be a strategic mindset permeating the entire department, encouraging community collaboration and input into departmental decision-making. In practice, many departments have instead treated this model of policing as a one-sided transaction carried out by a few officers in a special unit or through sporadic events or meetings.
Collaboration between police and communities is essential to ensuring local public safety. Though many jurisdictions have failed to properly implement comprehensive community policing, there are three significant steps that can be taken by local police departments to ensure a community policing philosophy permeates their entire department. Effective community policing requires departments to transition from simple community interaction to holistic community engagement.
A recent report finds that departments are interacting with their communities but are not doing so in a manner that results in community members being able to provide feedback on departmental policies and tactics that will be considered by decision makers. Community policing requires departments to go beyond specialized units and leadership periodically attending community events.
To implement the core principles of this model of policing, every leader and officer should hold a duty to work alongside community leaders and organizations to solve local problems through collaboration.
By modeling departmental culture on the principles of community policing, chiefs and other leaders can ensure that necessary changes are made in order to create significant community collaboration.
Proper implementation of community policing requires that officers receive sufficient training on community engagement and collaboration. The most recent data available reveals that police academies spend, on average, percent more time training new officers on firearm skills and defensive tactics than community policing. Police academies and departments across the country seeking to adopt community policing should ensure that officers are equipped to be effective collaborators with their local communities.
They can begin by ensuring that new officers are equipped with the skills and knowledge they need to effectively engage community members. Once police leadership is leading by example and agencies are providing sufficient training to their officers, they must create departmental policies that strike a proper balance between discretion and accountability for all officers.
Collaboration with community members and organizations requires that patrol officers are empowered to make decisions and have discretion while also providing them with clear standards by which they will be held accountable. This balance of discretion and accountability has generally manifested itself as a less hierarchical reporting structure and increased access to diversionary alternatives combined with clear departmental policies that empower officers to act in the most effective way for their community and public safety.
Community supervision programs vary by form and function based on the jurisdiction but are tasked with supervising millions of Americans each year. Civil asset forfeiture is a practice that allows law enforcement to seize property and take possession of it based merely on the belief that the property may have been involved in a crime.
Policing in the United States has grown and changed over hundreds of years. Policing in America Today Law enforcement officials play an important role in our communities. The Importance of Community Policing The most effective way to achieve public safety in local communities results from police and community members working collaboratively to create public safety. Implementing Effective Community Policing Practices Collaboration between police and communities is essential to ensuring local public safety.
The Role of Policing in Society in 60 Seconds. Why Community Supervision Matters Community supervision programs vary by form and function based on the jurisdiction but are tasked with supervising millions of Americans each year. Learn More. What is Civil Asset Forfeiture? Militarization of Police Policing in the United States has grown and changed over hundreds of years.
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